OECD: Realising the circular bioeconomy

OECD SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY POLICY PAPERS | First the bioeconomy and then circular economy have gained political traction during the second decade of this century. There are synergies to be exploited, but also potential misalignments. The movement of bioeconomy toward the use of wastes, co-products and residue sources resonates well with circular economy principles of making the most efficient of uses of natural resources, as does as transition in focus from virgin to secondary materials in production. However, poorly aligned waste characterisation as well as biomass competition reflect both theoretical and practical conflicts between industrial and environmental policy.